• 1964 Angioplasty first performed 
  • 1964 The Philadelphia Angiography and Interventional Radiology Society forms 
  • 1966 Embolization therapy to treat tumors and spinal cord vascular malformations by blocking the blood flow  
  • 1967 The Judkins technique of coronary angiography, the technique still most widely used around the world today  
  • 1967 Closure of the patent ductus arteriosis, a heart defect in newborns of a vascular opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta  
  • 1967 Selective vasoconstriction infusions for hemorrhage, now commonly used for bleeding ulcers, GI bleeding and arterial bleeding  
  • 1969 The catheter-delivered stenting technique and prototype stent  
  • 1960-74 Tools for interventions such as heparinized guidewires, contrast injector, disposable catheter needles and see-through film changer


  • 1970s Percutaneous removal of common bile duct stones  
  • 1970s Occlusive coils  
  • 1972 Selective arterial embolization for GI bleeding, which was adapted to treat massive bleeding in other arteries in the body and to block blood supply to tumors  
  • 1973 Embolization for pelvic trauma  
  • 1974 Selective arterial thrombolysis for arterial occlusions, now used to treat blood clots, stroke, DVT, etc.  
  • 1974 Transhepatic embolization for variceal bleeding  
  • 1977-78 Embolization technique for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and varicoceles  
  • 1977-83 Bland and chemoembolization for treatment of hepatocellular cancer and disseminated liver metastases


  • 1980 Cryoablation to freeze liver tumors  
  • 1980 Development of special tools and devices for biliary manipulation  
  • 1980’s Biliary stents to allow bile to flow from the liver saving patients from biliary bypass surgery 
  • 1981 Embolization technique for spleen trauma  
  • 1982 TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) to improve blood flow in damaged livers from conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatitis C  
  • 1982 Dilators for interventional urology, percutaneous removal of kidney stones  
  • 1983 The balloon-expandable stent (peripheral) used today  
  • 1985 Self-expandable stents


  • 1990 Percutaneous extraction of gallbladder stones  
  • 1990 Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) technique for liver tumors  
  • 1990’s Treatment of bone and kidney tumors by embolization  
  • 1990’s RFA for soft tissue tumors, i.e., bone, breast, kidney, lung and liver cancer  
  • 1991 Abdominal aortic stent grafts  
  • 1994 The balloon-expandable coronary stent used today  
  • 1997 Intra-arterial delivery of tumor-killing viruses and gene therapy vectors to the liver  
  • 1999 Percutaneous delivery of pancreatic islet cells to the liver for transplantation to treat diabetes
  • 1999 Endovenous laser ablation procedure to treat varicose veins and venous disease